There are a lot of people trying to reinvent the wheel in different localities. If you're the mayor of Poughkeepsie or Atlanta or San Diego, it's not easy to know what the best practice is.
Putting a lot of money and time in preparedness efforts where you may never see what you hope will never happen is not a politically attractive thing to do. The payoff is too far in advance.
The intelligence community was stuck. It was stuck in Cold War ways, Cold War thinking, Cold War culture.