Within speech, words are subject to a kind of relation that is independent of the first and based on their linkage these are syntagmatic relations, of which I have spoken.
Whitney wanted to eradicate the idea that in the case of a language we are dealing with a natural faculty in fact, social institutions stand opposed to natural institutions.
The first of these phases is that of grammar, invented by the Greeks and carried on unchanged by the French. It never had any philosophical view of a language as such.
The critical principle demanded an examination, for instance, of the contribution of different periods, thus to some extent embarking on historical linguistics.
Nearly all institutions, it might be said, are based on signs, but these signs do not directly evoke things.
Linguistics will have to recognise laws operating universally in language, and in a strictly rational manner, separating general phenomena from those restricted to one branch of languages or another.
It is only since linguistics has become more aware of its object of study, i.e. perceives the whole extent of it, that it is evident that this science can make a contribution to a range of studies that will be of interest to almost anyone.
It is one of the aims of linguistics to define itself, to recognise what belongs within its domain. In those cases where it relies upon psychology, it will do so indirectly, remaining independent.
In general, the philological movement opened up countless sources relevant to linguistic issues, treating them in quite a different spirit from traditional grammar for instance, the study of inscriptions and their language. But not yet in the spirit of linguistics.
In fact, from then on scholars engaged in a kind of game of comparing different Indo-European languages with one another, and eventually they could not fail to wonder what exactly these connections showed, and how they should be interpreted in concrete terms.
In attempting to trace the history of a language, one will very soon find oneself obliged to trace the history of a language family.
Henceforth, language studies were no longer directed merely towards correcting grammar.
Any psychology of sign systems will be part of social psychology - that is to say, will be exclusively social it will involve the same psychology as is applicable in the case of languages.
A language presupposes that all the individual users possess the organs.
Politics as battle has given way to politics as spectacle.
To my thinking, this - that the Priestly Code rests upon the result which is only the aim of Deuteronomy.
The stone which Jacob consecrated at Bethel the generation of the living continues to anoint, paying the tithes which of old he vowed to the house of God there.
The revision of the books of Judges, Samuel, and Kings, undertaken towards the end of the Babylonian exile, a revision much more thorough than is commonly assumed, condemns as heretical the whole age of the Kings.
Solomon's temple also was designed to increase the attractiveness of the city of his residence.
Jeremiah has to lament that there are as many altars as towns in Judah.
In the Books of Judges and Samuel hardly a place is mentioned at which we have not at least casual mention of an altar and of sacrifice.
For the earliest period of the history of Israel, all that precedes the building of the temple, not a trace can be found of any sanctuary of exclusive legitimacy.
And finally, it was Deuteronomy that brought about the historical result of Josiah's reformation.
A judgment pronounced in accordance with the facts can therefore assign to it an historical place only within that movement of reformation which was brought to a victorious issue by King Josiah.
Whoever knows it also knows that in love there is no More and no Less but that he who loves can only love with the whole heart, and with the whole soul with all his strength and with all his will.